Thursday, 7 August 2014

Surgeons at War



Invasive operations – its accompanying pains and potential complications – gave early modern surgeons and surgery a somewhat negative reputation.  Surgeons belonged to an ignoble profession, one joke noted, because they made a living “by the hurts of other men.”[1]

Despite this characterization, surgeons – along with barbers and apothecaries – provided the bulk of day-to-day medical advice and treatment at this time.  Physicians were few and too expensive.[2] 

Surgeons were even more important and necessary on the battlefield.  Indeed, seventeenth-century soldiers and naval men were treated almost exclusively by surgeons rather than physicians.

The almost continuous warfare throughout the period provided surgical practitioners with numerous opportunities for state service and a plentiful supply of wounded men to treat.  War contributed significantly to surgery’s growth in terms of both organization and practical techniques. 

In addition to honing their skills, war encouraged surgeons’ creativity as they sought better ways to treat wounds rather than relying on older and accepted knowledge.

Ambroise Paré, for example, discovered the use of ligatures in amputations, researched amputation’s effects,
Paré's prosthetic
and even designed prosthetics.

As early as the 1530s, Paré admitted to searching actively for other methods to treat gunshot wounds, and moreover, that both himself and other surgeons knew to use suppuratives rather than boiling oil due to their wartime experience.[3] 

It was Paré, famously, who popularized the idea that gunshot wounds were not poisonous and that the wounds did not need to be cauterized.  He was, in particular, moved by the pain his patients suffered – those cauterized with hot oil suffered from fevers and “great pain” due to inflamed wounds.  Viewing them with horror Paré “resolved with my selfe, never to burn so cruelly the wounded Patients by Gunshot any more.”[4]

Though less painful for the patients, Paré’s new method of treating gunshot wounds horrifyingly required boiled puppies and worms in alcohol. 

The infamous boiled puppy recipe was given to Paré by a surgeon in Turin and required:

“two young whelpes, one pound of earth-wormes, two pounds of the oyle of Lillies, six ounces of the Terebinth of Venice, and one ounce of Aqua-vitae: and in my presence he boiled the whelpes alive in the saide Oyle, until the flesh departed from the bones. Afterward, he tooke the wormes (having before killed and purified them in white wine, to purge themselves of the earth which they have always in their bodies) being so prepared, he boyled them also in the said Oyle till they became dry, this he strained through a Napkin, without any great expressions, that done, he added thereto the Terebinth, and lastly, the Aqua-vitae, and called God to witnesse, that this was his Balme which is used in all wounds made by Gunshot.”[5]

Though Paré was well known and his work widely disseminated, it is unknown just how popular his puppy cure came to be. 

On 23 October 1642, at the Battle of Edgehill, a soldier named Christpher Wally was shot with a pistol just an inch above the clavicle on the right side of his neck.  The pistol ball traveled into his mouth, embedding broken teeth into his cheek and damaging significantly his jaw.  The damage was so severe that when Wally drank broth, it “come out at his wound in ye necke soe as when he dranke he put his fingers on the wound.  Incredibly, as surgeon Joseph Binns related, Wally survived after being bled, his wound dressed, and given numerous liquids to gargle.  Wally was recorded as cured on 20 December of the same year.

In 1662, English surgeons Joseph Binns, Thomas Hollier, and Thomas Arris treated the son of a fourth surgeon, one Mr. Dickson, who had been shot with a musket in the arm.  The musket ball traveled up the man’s arm and “fractured all the bone to peeces.”  The patient was dressed with various herbs including sage and wormwood, various infusions in alcohol, was bled, and given a glister.  He too survived. 

Roughly 130 years after Paré’s The Method of Curing, Richard Wiseman would repeat a similar puppy cure in his Several Chirurgical Treatises.[6]   

Wiseman was easily one of the most important English surgeons of the early modern period.  His mammoth treatises, years as a naval surgeon, and time at Charles’s side during the English Civil War make him an intriguing figure. 

Like Paré before him, Wiseman believed that a combination of experience and accepted knowledge was key to a successful surgical practice. 

Though his contributions to surgery do not compare to Paré’s innovations, Wiseman’s many publications included over 100 case studies in A Treatise of Wounds (1672) and roughly 600 case studies in Severall Chirurgical Treatises (1676). 

These case histories or observations were an important part of communicating surgical innovations and reflects neatly the new science’s emphasis on experiment and experience.  Cases such as these helped showcase surgical knowledge and disseminate it to other surgeons, physicians, and natural philosophers.

It was one of the many ways in which surgical practitioners could gain occupational and personal credit.

The Royal Society’s Philosophical Transactions benefited from Wiseman’s dedication to printing detailed reports of his case observations.

As I’ve written about here, styptics – external medicines that staunched the flow of blood – were an integral part of the army surgeon’s chest and a matter of some debate in the seventeenth century.

Though he did not develop or test the so-called “Royal Stiptick Water” on the battlefield, Wiseman experimented with it and described its effects in the Phil. Trans. for the benefit of other army and naval surgeons.

Tales of the liquid styptic reached English shores through the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.  In 1673 Jean-Baptiste Denys, the personal physician to Louis XIV, wrote to the journal from Paris and related the experiments he made on dogs and men to test the styptic’s efficacy.[7]  Intrigued by the letter, Wiseman and Dr. Walter Needham requested samples of the liquid with which to perform their own experiments.

Combined, the men performed six separate experiments on dogs, calves, and, spontaneously, on one human.  Unlike Denys’ brief letter, Wiseman and Needham’s notes to the journal were quite extensive and included details of how and where incisions were made, how the styptic was applied, and the outcome of the process.[8]

The royal styptic was tested privately by Wiseman and Needham, before members of the Royal Society, and at Whitehall by the king’s command.  The repeated testing was not a sign that the men sought replicability of results.  Indeed, the initial private test was on a dog, the styptic’s use on a female patient was entirely unplanned, the experiment before the Royal Society was also on a dog, while the experiment before the king was made on two calves.[9] 

Indeed, Wiseman was not prepared to perform an experiment on humans at the time and he ended up lightly cauterizing the wound with a hot iron and using tight bandages in addition to using the styptic. 

These were not carefully the controlled experiments of modern science.  At no time did either Wiseman or Needham suggest that the tests’ parameters needed to be controlled or even comment that the slightly different results of each test was significant.  Rather, they noted that the styptic was effective because the dogs and calves were “still found alive and well” and “went away without any bandage.”[10] 

The experiments’ steps, it seemed, were recorded more to lend authority to the account rather than as a guide to further experimenters on what to expect.  Indeed, it seems more likely that the details were included to allow readers to become virtual witnesses. 

In the same way, Wiseman and Needham witnessed the experiments together, then with the Royal Society, and then it was again witnessed by the king and “several” of  his physicians and surgeons until “his Majesty himself declared publickly to be very well satisfied with it.”[11] 

Monarchical approval – from both sides of Channel – lent Denys’ styptic significant cachet.  Indeed, it was the royal stypic.  

Battle wounds, especially from gunshot, were exceptionally deadly and uncontrolled bloodless a major worry.  War forced early modern surgeons to experiment and innovate.  From puppies to liquid styptics, they sought less painful and more effective methods with which to treat their patients.

For more on early modern military surgery check out Jennifer Evans’ recent post Wounded at War (featuring more Wiseman!).

Let me know what you think here or on Twitter – I’m @medhistorian.


[1] Ashton, Humour Wit & Satire, 341.
[2] Mary Lindemann, Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 216; Margaret Pelling and Charles Webster, “Medical Practitioners,” in ed. Charles Webster, Health, Medicine, and Mortality in the Sixteenth Century (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1979), 182.
[3] Ambroise Paré, The Method of Curing Wounds Made by Gun-shot, 8.
[4] Ibid., 4.
[5] Paré, The Method of Curing Wounds Made by Gun-shot, 5.  Also, please do not try to make this recipe.
[6] Wiseman, Severall Chirurgical Treatises (1676), 413.
[7] Jean-Baptiste Denys, “An Extract of  a Letter, Written to the Publisher by M. Denys from Paris,” Phil. Trans. 8 (1673), 6039.  For more on Denys see Holly Tucker, Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and Murder in the Scientific Revolution (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2011).
[8] Denis, “Experiments of a Present and Safe Way of Staunching,” Phil. Trans. 8 (1673), 6052-6059.
[9] Ibid., 6052-6054.  See also: Wiseman, Severall Chirurgicall Treatises, 273.
[10] Denis, “Experiments of a Present and Safe Way of Staunching,” 6053-6054.
[11] Ibid.

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  16. OMG!! This is certainly a shocking and a genuine Testimony..I visited a forum here on the internet on the 20TH OF JAN 2017, And I saw a marvelous testimony of this heard nor learnt anything about magic before.. Not a soul would have been able to influence me about magical spells, not until DR OSCAR DILAN did it for me and restored my marriage of 5 years back to me and brought my spouse back to me in the same 24 hours just as I read on the internet.. I was truly astonished and shocked when my husband knelt down begging for forgiveness and for me to accept him back.. I am really short of expressions, and i don`t know how much to convey my appreciation to you DR OSCAR DILAN you are a God sent to me and my entire family.. And now I am a joyful woman once again.. here is his Email:oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS.......YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

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  17. OSCAR DILAN showed me what true MAGIC spell was.He helped me get back my husband that was invovled with my best friend from even before we got married. I contacted OSCAR DILAN after reading a comment on a blog about how he has helped a lot of men and women fix their problem. I contacted OSCAR DILAN after reading a comment on a blog about how he has helped a lot of men and women fix their problem. It took another 5 days for the magic spell to became active and after that day it was almost like magic i can explain what happened but all i can say is that my husband came back to me asking me to take him back telling me how much he loves me and wanted to be with me. My life is back to how it ought to be with my husband and my kids by my side. OSCAR DILAN helped me make this happen. Here is his contact for those who belive and want to contact him oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS...YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

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  18. I want to share a great testimony on this website on how great DR OSCAR DILAN help me in falling pregnant,me and my husband have been trying to have a baby for over 4years,but they where no luck so we decided to contact the family doctor and after all the test have been done,he said to us that my fallopian tube is not functioning.then one day i was in the office when a friend of mine who have the same problem with me, fall pregnant after she contacted DR OSCAR DILAN.she directed me to him and when i contacted him through his email and he did the purification on the pregnancy spell and in 2weeks time i was feeling some how and i went to meet the family doctor who told me that i am pregnant.if you know that you have a similar problem like this, or any fertility issue and you want to be pregnant you can contact Priest OSCAR DILAN via Email:oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS...YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

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  19. PENIS ENLARGEMENT, WEAK ERECTION, FEEL LIKE A KING IN BED POWERFUL LOVER WITH COMPLETE CONTROL IN BED YOU CAN FUCK ANY WOMAN TO ORGASM AND IT,S EASY My name is Greg Williams from USA am here today to testify about my true life story many men all over the world today are suffering of small joystick (PENIS) and weak erection of the penis. I am 56 YEARS and have lived a very lonely life because of it. I can,t even look at women in the eye because of it. It has caused me great torment through-out my life. I had sex with a lot of girls but also had a lot of rejections and a lot of girls mock on my size. For me the thoughest part is not that girls mock on my size but when my wife packed out of the house and started seeing another man. Let’s me say that 85% of men & youth all over the world are really suffering of small joystick (PENIS) and weak erection of the penis. Some men today no longer enjoy their spouse any more, due to the size and weak erection of the penis, because of this act their ladies goes out to have sex with those men that their penis is bigger still strong and stand erect. This act breaks marriages or relationship. My condition have changed today after contacting DR.OSCAR DILAN the great herbalist, If you,re in the same condition please contact him via his email:oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS.. YOU CAN ALSO CALL / ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136 so you can feel like a REAL MAN AGAIN AND BE HAPPY FOR LIFE......

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  20. HOW I GET MY HERPES CURED WITHIN 8 DAYS

    I want every herpes patient to please read my testimony, my name is FLORA RUFER am from California in USA, I contacted genital herpes from my ex boyfriend who never had any symptoms. I have had it for 4 months now., and it has affected my life. I have told my boyfriends who I trusted about it and I have never had a bad reaction, it has affected my new relationships with penny and people think herpes is really a minor skin irritation herpes has a long term effects on health. The stigma attached to this virus by ignorant people is ridiculous. Most people have herpes in one form or another. I would like to advise people on how I get rid of my herpes and I was reading a comment on the internet,and I saw a testimony posted by a woman from island that she get rid of her herpes with the help of doctor OSCAR DILAN and so I was so happy when I saw that post, that his herbal medication is free and I quickly collected the herbal doctor email and I email him within 5 hr he respond to my email and I explain things to him he told me not to worry that I should fill his herbal form wish I did and he only request for little money that he will use to buy the items for the preparation of the herbal medicine, wish I send to him because the pain was too much for me to bear and after some days he told me that he has prepare the herbal medicine, that I should send him my address that he want to sent it to me via DHL or FED-EX that was how I got the herbal medication and I use it as I was told and after few days I found out that my herpes was no more and when some of my friend who has herpes saw me they were surprise and I also introduce them to the man and they are also cure from the same herpes and if you have herpes, kindly contact DR OSCAR DILAN via this email:oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS........ THIS MAN'S MEDICATION IS 100% EFFECTIVE AND ACTIVE .... CONTACT HIM TODAY VIA THIS EMAIL ADDRESS: oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS... so you can be happy again....YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

    ReplyDelete


  21. Hello!! I’m indeed very happy for the great help that DR.OSCAR DILAN rendered to me, I am here to give my testimony about a doctor who helped me in my life. I and my husband was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS last 4 years ago, we went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, on till one faithful day , we saw a blog whereby DR. OSCAR DILAN cured a woman who also had herpes effection, we (Me and My Husband) decided to contact him which we did, he asked us to buy some items, unfailingly we sent him the money he will need in buying the items required , He casted the spell and asked us to go for check-up after three days of casting the spell, Luckily for us we were tested herpes NEGATIVE, now I believe all these Testimonies about him on the internet, he is truly a great man, if you are going through the same problem and you need help you can contact the great Herbalist and a spell caster on : oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS........ THIS MAN'S MEDICATION IS 100% EFFECTIVE AND ACTIVE .... CONTACT HIM TODAY VIA THIS EMAIL ADDRESS: oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS... so you can be happy again....YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

    ReplyDelete



  22. Hello friends my name is Sharon Johnson am from uk ,this is unbelievable I have be suffering for { Genital Herpes virus } am giving a testimony about how Dr OSCAR DILAN the great Herbalist, he has the cure to all manner of diseases, he cured my herpes simplex virus, though I went through different website I saw different testimonies about different spell casters and herbalist, I was like: 'Many people have the herpes simplex virus cure why are people still suffering from it?' I though of it, then I contact Dr OSCAR DILAN via email, I didn't believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try, he replied my mail and Needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared it (CURE) and sent it to Courier Service for delivery, he gave my details to the Courier Office, they told me that 3-5 days I will receive the package and I took the medicine as prescribed by him and I went for check-up 1 week after finishing the medicine, I was tested genital herpes virus NEGATIVE,so he can prepare a herbal cure on me from his temple.. after three days I started getting more stronger my blood started flowing normally I started experiencing changes all over me as the great Dr OSCAR DILAN assured me that I have been cured,after some time I went to the doctor to confirmed if I have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, if you have hepatitis B herpes cancer Hiv/AIDS any kind of SICKNESS/DISEASES contact him for cure now and he also do love spell, and any kind of spell you can think of or any illness I advice you all to contact him: oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS... ......Thank you Dr OSCAR DILAN for your help that you use to cure my GENITAL HERPES VIRUS AM HEAL AND SO HAPPY TO LIVE IN LIFE, SO GRATEFUL TO YOU DR OSCAR DILAN AND IF YOU HAVE HERPES PROBLEM I WILL ADVICE YOU TO EMAIL THAT GREAT DOCTOR CALLED DR OSCAR DILAN FOR YOUR HELP ALSO AS HIS EMAIL ADDRESS IS : oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS....................YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

    ReplyDelete

  23. GREAT ILLUMINATI TEMPLE Of MONEY AND POWER,
    JOIN THE ILLUMINATI : oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS TO CONTACT HIM OR YOU CAN ALSO CALL / ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

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    If you are interested e-mail info to: oscardilan68@yahoo.com OR oscardilan68@hotmail.com OR oscardilan68@gmail.com .... YOU CAN USE ANY OF THE EMAILS TO CONTACT HIM OR YOU CAN ALSO CALL / ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER: +2348077526136 for immediately initiation.New members registration is now open online...YOU CAN ALSO CALL / ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

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  24. HOW I GOT MY LOAN FROM THIS GREAT COMPANY CALLED ELLIOT OLIVE LOAN COMPANY

    Hello to All across the globe, I am Martha Loiussa, currently living in NEW YORK now, USA. I am a widow at the moment with 2 kids and I was stuck in a financial situation in April 2017 and I needed to refinance and pay my bills. I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success, and most banks declined my credit ,do not fall prey to those hoodlums out there that call them self money lender they are all scam , all they want is your money and you well not hear from them again they have done it to me twice before I meet Mr ELLIOT OLIVE the most interesting part of it is that my loan was transfer to me within 74hours so I will advice you to contact Mr ELLIOT OLIVE if you are interested in getting loan and you are sure you can pay him back on time you can contact him via email……… ( elliotoliveloanfirm@yahoo.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@gmail.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@hotmail.com ) No credit check, no co signer with just 2% interest rate and better repayment plans and schedule if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan without collateral then contact Mr ELLIOT OLIVE today for your loan

    They offer all kind of categories of loan they

    Short term loan (5_10years)
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    Email..........( elliotoliveloanfirm@yahoo.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@gmail.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@hotmail.com )
    When it comes to financial crisis and loan then Mr ELLIOT OLIVE loan financial is the place to go please just tell him I Martha Loiussa direct you Good Luck.... HS EMAIL IS : elliotoliveloanfirm@yahoo.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@gmail.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@hotmail.com ......................

    ReplyDelete

  25. ATTENTION TO EVERYONE:

    Greetings to everyone, Life they say is full of deceit. No torture and pain can be compare to what I Jackson Bernard experience in the hands of scammers, I trusted the words of those fake loan lenders without verifying, I lost more than $12,500 in the quest of obtaining a loan i sold my car defaulted in my bills but i keep on falling victim my life has been piece of trash full of mess. My kids dropped out of school, My bank denied me credit because my credit score was down already. Until last week a very close friend told me that she got a loan from MARKO LOAN PLC that i should also give it a try. Not having an option I contacted them with a heart full of sorrow and skepticism i shyly follow their procedures comply to their policy, I was waiting for the bad news like every other loan company i contacted gave me then i receive a credit alert that my bank account has been credited with $190,000 which i initially applied for instantly tears of joy roll out of my eyes because I never believe it will come through. Whenever you are in need of any kind of loan don't be a prey and contact the one true loan company via their information. Email: elliotoliveloanfirm@yahoo.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@gmail.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@hotmail.com. And receive your financial breakthrough. Just send them an email today: elliotoliveloanfirm@yahoo.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@gmail.com OR elliotoliveloanfirm@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  26. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius, call/whats-App Contact Number +918929509036 via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius, call/whats-App Contact Number +918929509036 via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  28. I want to use this medium to testify of how i got back my ex husband after divorce, i and my husband have been married for 8 years with 2 kids, we have been a happy family. Last year his behavior towards me and the kids changed, i suspected he was meeting another woman outside out marriage, any time i confronted him, he threatened to divorce me, i did all i could to make hings right but all to no avail until i saw a post on a "love and relationship forum" about a spell caster who helps people to cast spell on marriage and relationship issues, when i contacted this spell caster via email, he helped me cast a re-union spell and my husband changed and came apologizing to me and the kids. Contact this great spell caster for your relationship or marriage issues via this email: chiefdrlucky@gmail.com or Whats App him on +2348132777335 Website: http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/ Good luck

    ReplyDelete
  29. i have been trying to get pregnant for over 5 years now. My husband and I have been seeing a fertility specialist. We have done our best but no luck. My husband has a sperm count which goes up and down,the doctor has recommended him taking the Proceed supplement which he is doing over 3 years with no change in the situation .. I was so confused until i contacted this powerful spell caster Dr. Ebhota online who I saw a number of testimonies of how he has help so many of people so I sent Dr. Ebhota a mail and I told him all my sorrows and pain he replied me and ask me not to cry any more that he will help, he sent me some instructions and caution, Dr. Ebhota cast the spell and I bought some items to complete the spell casting and he told me to meet with my husband.. Within 3weeks of doing this I felt some changes and I went to my doctor and it was confirm that I was pregnant,i promises Dr Ebhota to share his testimony for three years,it has been over a year and four months now,i have been testifying this great testimonies for my life and my husband,for any one how need his help herb potion should contact him,on his Email [ drebhota123456@gmail.com ] or call him on [ +2349035324155 ]

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