Wednesday, 29 October 2014

"Death In The Pot!" Part I



“There is death in the pot!”[1]  The book of 2 Kings records that this was proclaimed, by several prophets, in response to the poisonous stew served to them.  The warning allowed Elisha to add flour to the stew, and so doing, remove the harmful effects rendered by poisonous gourds.[2] 

This dire warning was reprinted boldly, in capital letters, on the front cover of chemist Fredrick Accum’s 1820 book A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons.  

Accum's book cover.  Isn't it gorgeous?
As those who know me have discovered, I love food.  It’s no surprise, really, that I was so captivated by Accum’s graphic book cover, frontispiece, and words.  As an MA student many, many years ago, I even found myself nodding along to statements such as: “of all the frauds practiced by mercenary dealers, there is none more reprehensible, and at the same time more prevalent, than the sophistication of the various articles of food.”[3] 

Food adulteration, he wrote, was an “unprincipled and nefarious practice.”[4]
Accum's sense of drama was amazing.

Today we worry about consuming GMO corn, artificial foods, antibiotic and/or hormone-filled meat while fondly trying to recall the golden years when food was real food. 

In 19th century England, they were – more or less – trying to recall those days too.  Londoners, you see, were purchasing and consuming foods contaminated with everything from alum to opium to Prussian blue dye.  Indeed, food adulteration during the Victorian era was fraught with fraud, deaths, cover ups, and scandal and many accounts read like mystery or detective novels.

By mid-century there were a plethora of popular and scientific texts that warned the public about the harmful nature of the foods they were consuming.  Both the popular and professional texts indicted the law for its ineffectiveness and castigated the men who knowingly sold adulterated food.

This included such things as adding chemicals to foodstuffs to make colours more vibrant or to make textures lighter, and even adding cheaper substances to foodstuffs without alerting the customer.

Public patterns of consumption played a very, very important role in increasing food adulteration.  For example, tea coloured with Prussian blue, a mixture of ferric ferrocyanide, lime sulphate and turmeric, was prized for its appearance.[5]  Not only that, but adulterated beer was preferred by workmen to pure beer!  The workmen found that the adulterants – hallucinogens and other narcotics – provided effects that the unadulterated drink could never match.[6]

George Dodd, in his 1856 treatise The Food of London, mentioned repeatedly that the public was partially at fault.  The love of aesthetically pleasing foods, he believed, prompted merchants to adulterate products so that it would be both appetizing and affordable.  This practice was surprisingly widespread. 

Bread, for example, was adulterated with alum so that it appeared white.  Copper was added to pickles so that it appeared green.[7]  Dodd reprinted the text of a Times article which stated that “anatto is used only in the cheese destined for London; that it’s use is a mere conventionalism, like that of very white bread.”  In response, he concluded that “our absurd taste for richly tinted cheese thus tempts men to adulterate.”[8] 

He blamed adulteration not only on “absurd” city tastes, but on a “love of cheapness” as well.[9]  Londoners were far more willing to purchase goods that were impossibly inexpensive.  Thus, articles such as milk and coffee were mixed with cheaper substances – water and chicory respectively – to allow and encourage the London consumer to purchase them.

Most of the popular and scientific works decried this love of inexpensive and seemingly fancy goods.  They labeled food adulteration in legal terms, simply calling it cheating or fraud.  This language was most often used by the popular press, who was outraged particularly by the monetary losses of the consumer, more specifically, the already poor consumer.[10]  As an 1851 article stated succinctly, “if a person asks for oatmeal and pays for oatmeal, he has a right to expect oatmeal.”[11] 

Health, too, was a major concern.  First, Londoners lost nutrients due to food substitutions and second, were made to eat and drink poisonous or unhealthy substances in their food. 

In the case of the oatmeal, for example, the most common adulterant, barley, was not only substantially cheaper than oatmeal, but it possessed significantly less nutritive properties.[12] 

Likewise, another journal likened the mixing of water with milk to “committing murder by pinpricks” and “starvation administered in small doses.”[13]  More specifically, the author stated that adulterated milk did not provide the nutrients required for healthy life, thus “enfeebling the young, pinching the underfed, and stinting the sustenance allowed to the sick and aged.”[14]  Adulterating milk, in effect, preyed primarily on those most helpless in society.

Wealth, however, did not mean exemption from the dangers of impure or tainted food.

Not even chocolate was exempt.
An 1856 article in Chambers’s Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts contrasted a culinary day in the life of a wealthy family and a poor, labouring family.  It found that both the rich and poor suffered greatly from the adulterations of foodstuffs.  

The poor Delver family, for example, purchased brown bread adulterated with “potatoes, bone-ashes, and clay,” while the wealthy Smith’s family purchased fine, white bread that was adulterated with alum, “Indian-corn, rice, gypsum, plaster of Paris, and chalk.”[15]  While the wealthy fared poorly, because the adulterants used to make fine white bread were far more harmful to one’s health, the poor suffered because they lost valuable nutrients in the meager meals they could afford.

Fredrick Accum was one of the first scientists to speak out against food adulteration. He cited the use of lead as causing “terrible diseases” and that “wine adulterated with the minutest quantity of it, becomes a slow poison.”[16]  The scientists writing on the topic decades later followed in his footsteps and were quick to point out the poisonous nature of the foods being consumed. 

Charles Cameron, a physician, stated that “several of the substances used in food sophistication are far from being harmless in their effects.”[17]  The eminent Dr. Hassall, for example, brought to attention that both invalids and children suffered early deaths due to adulteration. 

Everyone, he wrote – no matter how healthy one felt – was susceptible to harm as “the fact must be borne in mind that some of the metallic poisons used are what are called cumulative.”[18] 

Tune in on November 4th for Panacea’s 1st blogiversary and the second installation of Death in the Pot.  We’ll look at how investigations of food adulteration inevitably furthered the cause of science by demonstrating to the public that science had beneficial – and practical – applications.

Let me know what you think here or on Twitter – I’m @medhistorian.


[1] 2 Kings 4:40, NIV.
[2] 2 Kings 4:38-41.
[3] Fredrick Accum, A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons, London (1820), 5.
[4] Ibid.
[5] F. B. Smith, People’s Health 1830-1910, New York, N.Y.: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., (1979), 210.
[6] Ibid., 211. 
[7] Fredrick Accum, A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons, London (1820), 308.
[8] George Dodd, The Food of London, reprint of 1856 edition, New York, N.Y.: Arno Press Inc. (1976), 311.
[9] Ibid., 419.
[10] See: “Tricks of Trade,” Chambers’s Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts 510 (Oct. 1863), 238; “Milk,” All the Year Round 13,306 (March 1865), 128; “Facts and Scraps,” Ragged School Union Magazine (Nov. 1873), 263.
[11] “Oatmeal and its Adulterations,” Reynold’s Miscellany of Romance, General Literature, Science, and Art 7,164 (Aug. 1851), 88.
[12] Ibid.
[13] “Milk,” All the Year Round, 128.
[14] Ibid.
[15] “The Poor Man at Market,” Chambers’s Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Arts 128 (June 1856), 373.
[16] Ibid., 107.
[17] Charles Cameron, Lectures on the Preservation of Health, London: Cassell, Petter, and Galpin (1868), 97.
[18] Arthur Hassall, Food: Its Adulterations and the Methods for Their Detection, London: Longmans, Green, and Co. (1876),  837.

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  2. That is..the Lord God ...(not od) oops!

    ReplyDelete
  3. That is..the Lord God ...(not od) oops!

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thank you for this. As myself and my husband have been investigating GMO foods more and more and wondering if it is a deliberate pot to kill of many unsuspecting consumers, the Lord od suddenly shouted in my spirit 'There is death in the pot.'
    I read the scripture again today, googled it and came up with your article.Most interesting. We have become unwitting victims of food adultery, which surely must be a sin. Before we naively continue to put poison in our pots, as the sons of the prophets in 1 Kings 4:39 did, (since they picked the wild gourds and did not know what they were), so we must strive to know more about what we are eating if we want to avoid eating ourselves to death.
    Regards
    Janet

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    What ever the disease may be just contact him and he will surly cure you without having any side effect.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Hello everyone, i am so grateful to Dr.Okoni for curing mecompletely from COPD DISEASE. I was told by my medical doctor that i have COPD Few years ago, and ever since i have been taking different kinds of medication and yet no improvement until i saw testimonies of Dr.Okoni about how he has been curing people from different kinds of diseases Although i was skeptical about contacting him, but i also knew the importance of herbal medicine, then i made up my mind and contacted him we talked on phone and he prepared and gave me the medicine which i took according to his instructions. Now I’m so happy I’m 100% free from COPD. My heart is so filled with joy, thank you so much Dr.Okoni. If you are reading this and you have COPD or any other disease you can contact Dr.Okoni today on this Email address:(Okoniherbalsolution@outlook.com) OR you contact him on this no (+2348146495245) Website:https://okoniherbalsolution.webs.com
    He cures all manner of diseases like
    CANCER
    HIV
    HEPATITIS A AND B
    DIABETIC.
    HERPES
    SIPHILIS
    HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS(HPV)
    CEREBTOSPINAL MEINGITIS
    CHAGAS DISEASE
    ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
    SCHIZOPHRENIA. E.T.C.
    What ever the disease may be just contact him and he will surly cure you without having any side effect.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hello everyone out there, I'm here to give my testimony about a herbalist doctor who helped me. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2011, I went to many hospitals to heal myself but there was no solution, so I was thinking how I can get a solution so that my body can be well. One day I was in the river thinking about where I can go to get a solution. so a lady walked towards me telling me why I'm so sad and I open everything by telling her my problem, she told me she could help me, she introduced me to a doctor who uses herbal medicines to cure the SIMPLEX HERPES VIRUS and gave me your email, so I sent you an email. He told me everything I had to do and also gave me instructions to take, which I followed correctly. Before I knew what was happening after two weeks, the SIMPLEX HERPES VIRUS that was in my body disappeared. therefore, if you also have a broken heart and need help, you can also send an email to {oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com}or whatsapp him number: +2349038382931 or Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/drolihamiraclemedicine/
    Contact him today and he will have a testimony ... Good luck!

    Dr. OLIHA also cures:
    1. HIV / AIDS
    2. HERPES 1/2
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)
    5. Hepatitis B
    6. chronic pancreatic
    7. emphysema
    8. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

    ReplyDelete
  17. I was diagnosed of herpes in 2017 and I tried all possible means to get cure but all to no avail until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from Africa who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including herpes virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal doctor via his email drosaluherbalhome@gmail.com i bought the herpes herbal medicine and received it through UPS COURIER SERVICE within 4 days and used it as prescribed, i was cured permanently of herpes virus within 1 weeks of usage. Thanks to DR OSALU herbal medicine,you can as well contact him via his whats-app number +2348078668950.

    He got a lot of information to help cure any type disease.

    ReplyDelete

  18. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all Hiv patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for hiv or any cure for Hiv,i saw people’s testimony on sites of how DR okosun prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the Hiv DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email: dr.okosunspellalter@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +2347060571038
    he can also cure you from
    HPV
    HIV
    HIV2
    Hepatitis B
    Diabetes
    etc

    ReplyDelete
  19. I have been casting spells for many years and I have helped many people, I might be able to help you too. I am honest, and I genuinely care for all the clients who choose me to cast a spell for them.


    If you have any questions about Love, Money, curse, protection, bad luck, divorce, court cases, or about me please call or email me. I really want you to feel comfortable before moving forward with any spells, or other services. I will take the time to explain things to you and provide you with honest advice, to what is best for your situation. I will not pressure you into having a spell cast, I will leave that decision up to you, and when or if you decide to move forward, I might be able to help you.
    I will respect your Privacy. I will not seek to obtain any of your personal information beyond what you might voluntarily offer and all information you might give me including emails, phone numbers and photos will remain private and confidential.
    I perform my Rituals only at night between the hours of 0.00 - 0.59 (South African time) lasting 1 hour but of course, this depends on the nature of the ritual, some rituals might take hours and can also become necessary to be performed at specials places like; flowing streams, cemeteries and other places dictated by the gods.
    I do not want anyone to be under any illusions about my spells and its numerous rituals. Real and effective Voodoo is no child's play, it is expensive because, after the rituals, I will have to destroy all the materials involved by fire and the ashes scattered over a flowing stream or river.
    You will get what you seek.But please understand this might take a lot of time and that individual results may vary. contact +27663492930, greatogudugu@gmail.com

    Herbal cure for Following DISEASES,this is not scam is 100% Real.

    -HPV
    -DIABETES
    -PENIS ENLARGEMENT AND WEAK ERECTION
    -VIRGINA PROBLEM
    -WHOOPING COUGH
    - HEPATITIS B
    -FORDYCE SPOT
    -COLD SORE
    -ALS
    -LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTION
    -LOW SPERM COUNT
    -MRSA(METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
    -ZIKA VIRUS
    -HIV
    -STROKE
    -IMPOTENCE
    -PILE
    -HYPERTENSION
    -LOW SPERM COUNT
    -MENOPAUSE DISEASE
    -ASTHMA
    -CANCER
    -BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    -PCOS
    -SHINGLES
    -VIRAL HEPATITIS/HEPATITIS B
    -FIBROID
    -ASTHMA
    -SICKLE CELL
    -TINNITUS
    -BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    -DIARRHEA and so on...

    ReplyDelete
  20. I was suffering from Warts Simplex Virus, i was totally depressed due to my predicament , until i meet Dr Nana the great Traditional healer who cured me. you can also contact him now on whatsapp +2347014784614.or via email:on drnanaherbalsolutionhome@gmail .com for more information. \




    I was suffering from Warts Simplex Virus, i was totally depressed due to my predicament , until i meet Dr Nana the great Traditional healer who cured me. you can also contact him now on whatsapp +2347014784614.or via email:on drnanaherbalsolutionhome@gmail .com for more information.

    ReplyDelete