Saturday, 28 February 2015

From Orient to Occident Part I: Acupuncture in Victorian England



Around this time a couple years ago I sneezed and threw out my back.  I began the usual ice treatment while moving gingerly and trying vainly to hide my embarrassment at this new physical low.[1]

With some urging, I visited a massage therapist and acupuncturist later that day.  The massage was certainly not relaxing (but it did help with acute muscle pain) and I consented to an acupuncture session thereafter.

The needles were very thin and flexible and inserted at various depths across my back.  My natural disinclination to be stuck with needles meant that I was hyperaware of the acupuncturist’s actions.

The initial insertion was just a slight prick and some (perhaps all?) were tapped or twisted.  With the needle manipulation came a steady stream of questions. “Is this uncomfortable? Does this hurt? What does this feel like?”

The sensation was quite odd.

After a few minutes, some of the areas with needles inserted felt warm and heavy as if something was resting on my back.  After a few minutes more, however, the comfortably warm heavy feeling was replaced by vibration, a bit of pain, and then my acupuncture session was over.

In our modern, globalized world, it doesn’t seem particularly strange that a Caribbean-born person could undergo an Oriental medical treatment in southern Ontario.

But how and why did acupuncture become en vogue in Victorian England of all times and places?

Acupuncture’s origins lie in the East.  Rough acupuncture needles, hewn from rock, and dating to the Stone Age have been found in China and Mongolia. Pictographs depicting both acupuncture and moxibustion date from the Shang dynasty, while detailed written records date from about 300 BCE. 

ten Rhyne
From there, it was first introduced to Europeans by missionaries in the fifteenth century but did not experience the first of its popularity peaks until the early decades of the nineteenth.  The first detailed account of acupuncture in the West, was that of Dutch physician and botanist Wilhelm ten Ryhne at the end of the seventeenth century.  It is from De Acupunctura that we get the modern term acupuncture, meaning, to pierce the skin.  

Though published in London, ten Rhyne’s book and other accounts, piqued the interest of the French before acupuncture was considered with any seriousness by those across the Channel.  Indeed, the English largely ignored acupuncture until James Churchill published A Treatise on Acupuncturation in 1822.

News of the French experiments and Churchill’s treatise sparked the British interest in acupuncture.  While popular interest did not reach the levels attained by the less exotic pseudosciences like mesmerism or phrenology, over 45 popular journals published in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin mentioned acupuncture during the nineteenth century. 

These periodicals range widely from literary magazines like Charles Dickens’ All The Year Round to religious journals like the Journal of Sacred Literature to more general periodicals like Monthly Magazine and the Quarterly Review.  


Coverage was not particularly extensive and most journals published only 1-2 articles on acupuncture.  Articles on the topic were most frequent during the first half of the nineteenth century.  By the turn of the century, it was clear that acupuncture had fallen out of fashion, with only 7 articles on the topic published between 1880 and 1900. 

Though acupuncture articles accounted for only a tiny portion of the those read by Britons, it is clear that the term and its meaning had entered the general lexicon. Beginning in the late 1820s, the words ‘acupuncture’ and ‘acupuncturation’ were worked into poems and other fictional narratives. 

Interestingly, only a minority were medical in nature. 

Acupuncture was likened to a bee sting and to a jockey’s spurs on his horse; it was even brought into the political arena when George Grote declared that England was governed by “political acupuncturation.”  Overall, acupuncture, as practiced by Europeans, was portrayed positively in popular journals. 

The radical physician Thomas Wakley and his journal The Lancet played a significant role in establishing acupuncture as a medical treatment.



Wakley wanted The Lancet to be a radical, anti-establishment medical journal that would be bold and encourage scientifically proven treatments.  The journal was to be a complete chronicle of current medical literature, furnishing the medical practitioner with a test by which he could detect and expose ignorant practitioners and practices. 

Perhaps most important, Wakley sought to expose the corruption of the reigning medical authorities, the established schools, and the hospitals and encourage a medical reformation.  It is Wakley’s dedication to the professionalization of medical practice that shines through in the earliest issues of the periodical. 

The articles included in the publication declared its affinity for scientific experimentation and eventually the periodical became known for its scientific and social ideas, innovation, and inclusiveness. 

The sixth issue of The Lancet included an article entitled “Acupuncturation” that reported on the success of the therapy for a variety of ailments.  In keeping with the periodical’s professionalizing agenda, it stressed acupuncture’s long history and strongly encouraged further experimentation stating that “the facility with which acupuncture may be used, leads us to hope that this remedy may meet with a trial from many intelligent practitioners, who may give to the profession a fair and important result of their observations.”[2]

The importance of eye-witness observation of experiments was also emphasized as the author described in detail a soldier’s self-treatment by inserting four needles near his stomach.[3]

During the 1820s, The Lancet detailed conventional medical cases such as paralysis, lumbago, rheumatism, and sciatica that were treated successfully by acupuncture.  Perhaps, in part, due to the encouragement provided by the periodical, the treatment was being used more frequently in cases involving muscular and back pain. 

An 1826 Lancet article by Dr. T.W. Wansbrough detailed seven successful case studies of which he was witness.  In keeping with Lancet goals and the previous calls for professional trials, Wansbrough stated that after acupuncture came under his notice, he “resolved to give the operation a fair trial in every instance wherein its use should be indicated.”[4]

Wansbrough described the cures in extraordinary detail.  A 50 year old man, Mr. A.W., for example, was described as “corpulent” and suffering from lumbago.  Needles were inserted into his back with precision and “the operation lasted about five minutes.”  Thereafter, “Mr. W. then got up and dressed himself, expressing the greatest astonishment at what he termed the ‘magical effect of the needles.’”[5] 

In yet another case, the female patient, skeptical of the treatment was cured of her lumbago pains in only four minutes – so swiftly that she “could scarcely credit the evidence of her senses.”[6]
Acupuncture needles & points from Kaempfer's history of Japan (1728)

After observing its efficacy, Wansbrough became one of the leading advocates of acupuncture.  This was, however, despite the fact that he had no idea how it functioned.  Indeed, he believed it to “depend on some of those mysterious operations of nature that will ever be beyond the reach of human ken, and which by consequence constitute the ne plus ultra of physiological research.”[7] 

Here, acupuncture proves to be an interesting and unique case.  Wakley and the Lancet continued to support the use of acupuncture despite not knowing it worked on the one hand, while castigating mesmerism and homeopathy for the same reasons on the other!  

Acupuncture even became one of the many issues involved in the verbal sparring between the College of Physicians and the Thomas Wakley. 

The practice was criticized in 1827 by Dr. Grant Yeats at the prestigious Croonian Lecture hosted by the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians.  Yeats had classed acupuncture with the stethoscope, metallic tractors and phrenology, calling them “ephemeral follies.”

Wakley’s response was swift and vicious, castigating the College and accusing them and Yeats with displaying appalling “ignorance and bigotry” while citing the published successful case studies as exemplifying “in a most remarkable degree, the efficacy of acupuncturation, a remedy which, in despite of the sneers of certain learned sages, has come into general use.”[8]

The 1820 and 1830s were the peak of traditional acupuncture’s popularity in nineteenth century England.  The articles published at this time detailed the cure of ailments for which acupuncture is typically associated, and most of the cases demonstrated that the cures were done in the traditional method described by Chinese and Japanese texts. 

This, however, changed dramatically during the following decades.  Perhaps in response to the periodical’s encouragement, and in part reflective of the push to entrench science within medicine, acupuncture was soon used for an even greater variety of ailments and in ways considerably different from that practiced in the Orient.

The next Panacea entry will continue the story of acupuncture in Victorian Britain and explore the treatment’s transformation over the next 50 years and how, despite it’s mysteries, it was never (in the Lancet at least) placed on the same level as other popular and baffling treatments such mesmerism and homeopathy.

Let me know what you think here and on Twitter – I’m @medhistorian.


[1] It was so embarrassing that I now feel the need to share the moment with the internet :)
[2] Lancet 1,6 (1823), 200-201.
[3] Ibid., 201.
[4] “Acupuncturation by Mr. Wansborough of Fulham,” Lancet 6,161 (1826), 846.
[5] Ibid., 847.
[6] Ibid.
[7] Ibid., 848.
[8] Lancet 10,251 (1828), 366-367.

29 comments:

  1. This is very interesting. I didn't know this. Commonly is attributed to the french (but much later) its introduction in the western culture. I'll definitely come back for more on this topic.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you for the comment & the Twitter follow, Frederico. Indeed, the French were more interested in acupuncture before the British! Hope you check out the second half of the post on Wednesday - I'll focus more on how traditional acupuncture was altered and adapted by Victorians.

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    WhatsApp/Call him on (+2347087462033)..
    His blog> https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com





    A REAL GENUINE LOVE SPELL TO GET BACK YOUR EX EMAIL: SUPREMESPELLCAST@GMAIL.COM

    My husband was flirting with another woman. until he vanished away, I was desperate to get him back, I wasted so much time and money trying to get my Husband back, I tried almost all possibilities to have him back and nothing worked. I became lonely. To make it short, I found a spell caster, Dr. Sam. I saw the good testimonies about his wonderful work and after reading the Testimonials, I decided I had to try and give it one last try and After the spells, a miracle happened, my husband came home. It was awesome, anyone who needs help, should email him {Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or Supremespellcast@yahoo.com}
    WhatsApp/Call him on (+2347087462033)..
    His blog> https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  12. I will only advice every other woman TRYING TO GET PREGNANT or having Fallopian tube issues, pcos and other infertility problem to do their research and don’t base your option only on anyone’s advise or medical report, I did and it resulted in waste of money and time. contact Priest Babaka via Email: babaka.wolf@gmail.com Or Facebook at priest.babaka he will help you because he has help me with his fertility/pregnancy spell prayers.. am so happy today to have my own child. He can also fix relationship/marriage issue, in case of getting your Lover/Ex back

    ReplyDelete
  13. How I get back my ex-lover contact Dr. Sam for urgent and fast love spell @ Supremespellcast@gmail.com

    I never believed in spell casting but After 6 years of dating my ex-lover she broke up with me, I still imagine how Dr. Sam brought my ex-lover back to me in just 48 hours. No one could have ever made me believe that there is a real spell caster that really works. Am Cherry by name, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr. Sam, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my ex-lover who left me, When I contacted Dr. Sam he cast a love spell for me and my ex-lover who said she doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me. She is back now with so much love and caring. today I am glad to let you all know that this spell caster has the powers of bringing lovers back. because I am now happy with my lover, and the most surprising, is that our love is very strong, every day is happiness and joy. and there is nothing like been with the woman you love. I am so happy my love is back to me with the help of Dr. Sam if you have similar problem or you want to fix your broken relationship, stop divorce, get your ex back, get your divorce wife or husband back, I will advise you to contact him ,he is there to help you and put a smile on your face ask he did to me and others. his email: (Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or supremespellcast@yahoo.com)

    his blog> https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com
    WhatsApp/Call him +2347087462033

    ReplyDelete
  14. Contact Dr. Sam at supremespellcast@yahoo.com if you want to get your Husband, Wife, Boyfriend and Girlfriend back now and regain your happiness.

    My name is Lisa Amy. I am really pleased with this service Dr. Sam render to me. I am one of those people who said, “I’ll never call a psychic or a magician or whatever” to help me with my problems – least of all my love problems, but I reached the point where I knew I needed some guidance, and I’m so glad I found this man called Dr. Sam I never in a million years would have thought I’d be writing a letter like this, but when I nearly lost Andrew in one of our stupid, fights (he broke up with me), I thought I had lost everything.i cry all day and think that he will never come back to me again.I read a testimony by a man called Taylor Borg about him saying that how Dr. Sam helps him to get back is EX wife within 24 hours.I quickly email him. He did a (Lover spell) for me. 24 hours later, my (Ex-Boyfriend) came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal and our love is now stronger that he can't do without being with me. I and my boyfriend are living together happily again. Dr. Sam is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine. And when I was at my most desperate, he didn’t take advantage of me. You performed a very good service for a person in true need. I don’t know how you did it, or how this magic works, but all I know is, IT WORKS!! Andrew and i are happily back together, and I’ll always be grateful to Dr. Sam email him for any kinds of help is very capable and reliable for help. His blog> https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com

    Email him {Supremespellcast@gmail.com}
    {WhatsApp/Call: +2347087462033}

    ReplyDelete
  15. Great insights! A real wealth of information for every visitor, each piece of writing is verified and helpful.

    ReplyDelete
  16. find a real love spell caster? love spell caster who's work has shown results?Call/WhatsApp Dr.Unity +2348055361568.

    heal from broken heart" I'm so excited my husband is back after he left me for another woman"contact Unityspelltemple@gmail.com to help you get your Ex lover back urgently after breakup/divorce" After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he could come back to me, I was really worried and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a Love spell for me. 11hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity is real spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your ex lover back or save your marriage fast. Do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity now. Here’s his contact,Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com or Call/WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 ,website:https://unityspelltemples.blogspot.com ,your kindness will never be forgotten.

    Natasha Wanderly form USA.

    ReplyDelete
  17. POWERFUL SPELL CASTER THAT BROUGHT MY EX HUSBAND BACK INTO MY LIFE AFTER HE LEFT ME EMAIL HIM VIA EMAIL INFINITYLOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM OR INFINITYLOVESPELL@YAHOO.COM ADD HIM ON WHATSAPP +2348118829899

    Hello my fellow friends online I'm Diana Gilbert from USA, I want to use this medium to thank Dr Great because he brought back my Ex husband. my husband left me for his ex girlfriend he had before he married me it's a difficult situation for me I called and beg him to come back he refused he said he don't love me anymore I tried every possible way to get him back all was in vain I told my friend about it and she gave me Dr Great email and I emailed him and told him my problem and he told me what to do and I did it and he cast a love spell which brought back my husband within 24 hours. If you need help in getting back together with your Ex, email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com WhatsApp him+2348118829899 view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me you can also visit my blog http://dianagilbert05.over-blog.com/

    ReplyDelete
  18. POWERFUL SPELL CASTER THAT BROUGHT MY EX HUSBAND BACK INTO MY LIFE AFTER HE LEFT ME EMAIL HIM VIA EMAIL INFINITYLOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM OR INFINITYLOVESPELL@YAHOO.COM ADD HIM ON WHATSAPP +2348118829899

    Hello my fellow friends online I'm Diana Gilbert from USA, I want to use this medium to thank Dr Great because he brought back my Ex husband. my husband left me for his ex girlfriend he had before he married me it's a difficult situation for me I called and beg him to come back he refused he said he don't love me anymore I tried every possible way to get him back all was in vain I told my friend about it and she gave me Dr Great email and I emailed him and told him my problem and he told me what to do and I did it and he cast a love spell which brought back my husband within 24 hours. If you need help in getting back together with your Ex, email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com WhatsApp him+2348118829899 view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me you can also visit my blog http://dianagilbert05.over-blog.com/

    ReplyDelete