Tuesday, 10 March 2015

From Orient to Occident Part II: Acupuncture in Victorian England



N.B. This is the second half of a two-part series on acupuncture in Victorian England.  If you haven’t already done so, I’d recommend checking out Part I first.

Just to quickly recap, in the first post I discussed:
1)      acupuncture’s use in Victorian England
2)      acupuncture’s dismissal by reigning medical authorities
3)      Wakley and the Lancet published case studies to prove acupuncture’s efficacy

Wakley and the Lancet’s defense of acupuncture is fascinating – especially when contrasted with their contemporary denunciation of other inexplicable medical treatments like mesmerism, phrenology, and homeopathy.

Mesmerism or animal magnetism was attacked consistently by the Lancet after the infamous Dr. John Elliotson failed to adequately demonstrate the phenomena while in Thomas Wakley’s home.  Phrenology was slowly losing supporters, and homeopathy was almost always attacked as quackery.[1]    
Anonymous pamphlet attributed to Wakley.
Moreover, acupuncture possessed many similar characteristics to both mesmerism and phrenology.  First, all three “cures” were practiced by Dr. Elliotson.  Second, in an age when there was an effort to entrench science within medicine, there was no viable or accepted explanations for how either mesmerism or acupuncture worked. 

Case studies and experiments could take acupuncture only so far  – recorded cures via traditional acupuncture were professed to succeed in less than half of the cases in which it was employed.[2]

So we reach a bit of a conundrum.  Why didn’t Wakley and the Lancet portray acupuncture the way they treated mesmerism or homeopathy?

I would suggest that it’s simply because acupuncture needles were adaptable.

Both mesmerism and phrenology could be disproved as phenomena and thus rejected.  Acupuncture, however, in part because the Europeans were unsure as to how and when it should be used, required both wide and repeated experimentation.  Due to this experimentation, the procedures of, and occasions for acupuncture were widened considerably and changed along with the shifting medical trends of the period.

Perhaps in response to the calls for trials and experimentation, acupuncture began to be used for a wider variety of diseases in the 1830s.  In addition to the traditional cases of rheumatism, sciatica and lumbago, medical practitioners began to use acupuncture to treat cases of dropsy, hydrocele, ascites and ganglions.[3] 

Dropsy (1817)
All four of these ailments involve the accumulation of fluid.  Dropsy or oedema as it is now known commonly occurs in the ankles, hydrocele is an accumulation of liquid in a sac near the testes, ascites cause abdominal swelling due to fluid accumulation, and ganglions, also fluid filled sacs, tend to occur on the top of the wrist or foot. 

The “acupuncture” used in these cases, however, differs considerably from that practiced in the Orient.  Rather than the insertion of needles into the skin to stimulate nerves and relieve pain, acupuncture was now used to puncture cysts and release the accumulated fluid. 

This likely occurred for several reasons: first, the needle was a very visible and material object; the focus on it and its function paralleled the value and focus placed on surgical instruments at the time.  Second, as is still partially true today, they simply did not understand how acupuncture worked and thus tested its efficacy in as many cases as seemed plausible.

A more marked modification involved the coupling of electric therapy with acupuncture. 

Yes, that is as horrific as it sounds.

The treatment was reported by the Lancet as early as the 1820s, but was not recorded in any high numbers until the 1870s.

Electricity had been used in English medicine throughout the eighteenth century.[4]  The Lancet, however, only noted its use coupled with acupuncture in eight articles during the course of the nineteenth century.  The first three of these were published during the 1820s and 1830s.[5]  

Dispensing of medical electricity. Oil painting by Edmund Bristow, 1824.
The first instance was a case study of a physician who used galvano-acupuncture to treat “paralysis of the lower extremities, produced by curvature of the spine.”  The patient, a young girl who had been paralyzed for several months, consented to have acupuncture needles inserted into her back – the article states that they were driven into her spinal cord – and have these “brought into contact with the wire of a voltaic pile.”[6]  

Shockingly, the therapy was a success and the girl was able to walk again. 

The last case was recorded in 1830 and detailed the use of “electro-puncture” that is, acupuncture coupled with a galvanic battery, to treat successfully two cases of dropsy.[7]  Our knowledge of how often this treatment was used is hampered by the lack of articles published on the subject.  While the Lancet did publish one article in 1848 calling for the use of galvano-acupuncture in cases of asphyxia, it was merely a suggestion and did not include either case studies or even claims of successful use.[8]  It was not until 1879 that the periodical began publishing any significant number articles treated by galvano-puncture.

18thC French use of medical electricity.
During the late nineteenth century, physicians expanded their use of electricity as a medical treatment.   Both those on the medical fringe and regular hospital practitioners were extolling the virtues of electricity in curing a wide variety of ailments. 

It could be said that acupuncture, due to its coupling with electricity, underwent a renaissance in the latter decades of the nineteenth century.  While cures via traditional acupuncture left much to be explained and could not be professed to succeed in a half, or even a third, of the cases in which it was employed, the “advances of science” at least ensured that these electrical practitioners understood the basics of what they practiced.

In addition to the adaptation of acupuncture needles in electric therapy, it is also plausible that the continuing success of acupuncture could be linked with Victorian ideas on pain and need to control the body; the infliction of pain was seen in a positive light.[9]  As one article noted in a rather matter of fact manner, patients “watch with interest the insertion of the needles into their muscles and the transfixing of their limbs; welcoming the return of sensibility, even in the shape of pain, as a longed for boon.”[10] 

Another, in relation to sciatica, criticized traditional methods of acupuncture that only pierced the skin.  The practitioner stated that it was far more effective to pierce the nerve and that “the patient can always tell when the nerve has been pierced by pain shooting down the leg.”[11] 

From the 1820s to the 1890s, acupuncture in Britain had come a long way.  From the relatively painless therapy so extolled in the 1820s and 1830s, there emerged two far more painful treatments that better suited the scientific and medical environment.

To sum up the two blog posts: 
1) The changing representations of acupuncture in the Lancet have revealed a treatment that first served the periodical’s purpose in professionalizing medical practice.  The manner in which the ancient “cure” worked was a mystery to the Victorian medical practitioners.  The Lancet fully encouraged experimentation with this mystery treatment and included successful case studies in its defence.   
2) Acupuncture even became one of the many issues involved in the verbal sparring between the College of Physicians and professionalizing radicals such as Thomas Wakley.   
3) Perhaps in response to the periodical’s encouragement, and in part reflective of the push to entrench science within medicine, acupuncture was soon used for an even greater variety of ailments.  Despite its widened scope, it was never (in the Lancet at least) placed on the same level as many other baffling treatments such as mesmerism. 

Two possible reasons have been forwarded to explain this: First, in the 1830s, while acupuncture was used to treat ailments such as hydrocele, dropsy and ascites, it is evident that this was merely a logical extension of the needle’s form and function.  After all, if the acupuncture needle could be used to pierce the skin, why should it not be used to pierce cysts? 

Second, during the latter half of the nineteenth century, acupuncture was transformed to fit the needs and trends of the current medical marketplace.  It was first coupled with electricity and may had its life further extended by the burgeoning need to discipline the Victorian body. 

By the end of the century, acupuncture had transformed from a little known Oriental treatment to one with an Occidental – or rather a decidedly Victorian – veneer.

Let me know what you think here or on Twitter - I'm @medhistorian.


[1] For more on this, see John Epps, The Rejected Cases; With A Letter to Thomas Wakley on the Scientific Character of Homeopathy, London, Sherwood and Co. (1845); Lancet 58, 1464 (1851), 285.
[2] The words “cure” and “succeed” have to be viewed critically.  What did it mean to be “cured” of lumbago?  Was acupuncture a “success” for treating immediate pains?  Or did it dismiss entirely chronic pains? Lancet 97,2487 (1872), 567.
[3] See for example: Lancet 27, 703 (1837), 750; 28,713 (1837), 194-196; 28,721 (1837), 486-487; 29,743 (1837), 313; 115,2947 (1881), 285; 134,3436 (1889), 13-14.
[4] This was not just an English fad, other periodicals shared French and Italian experiments with electro-acupuncture i.e. Popular Science Review 10,38 (Jan 1871), 329.
[5] There are references to both galvanic and faradaic acupuncture.  Multiple articles, however, suggest the superiority of galvanic acupuncture i.e. Lancet  114,2926 (1879), 455; 114,2927 (1879), 499-502.  Iwan Rhys Morus writes more about this in Shocking Bodies: Life, Death & Electricity in Victorian England (2011).
[6] Lancet 6,157 (1826), 719.
[7] Lancet 13,335 (1830), 614-616.
[8] Lancet 51,1293 (1848), 636-637.
[9] See Iwan Rhys Morus, “Bodily Disciplines and Disciplined Bodies: Instruments, Skills and Victorian Electrotherapeutics,” Social History of Medicine 19,2 (2006), 241-259.
[10] Lancet 114,2927 (1879), 502.
[11] Lancet 141,3633 (1893), 860-861.

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  15. How I Got My Ex Husband Back........... I am Jennifer by name. Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I have been rejected by my husband after three(3) years of marriage just because another woman had a spell on him and he left me and the kid to suffer. one day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell caster on this address drsolutionspellcaster@gmail.com , have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a woman had a spell on my husband and he told me that he will help me and after 2 days that i will have my husband back. i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband. Thanks for Dr. Solution . His email: drsolutionspellcaster@gmail.com or whatsApp him +2347059757701

    ReplyDelete
  16. I am so glad to write this article today to tell the world how Chief Dr Lucky cured my HPV virus that have been in my body since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HPV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain, i was checking for solution on the internet then miraculously came across Chief Dr Lucky the powerful herbalist that cure HPV INFECTION,then i contacted his email, i explained everything to him and he prepared a herbal cure and send it to me that was how i got cured from HPV disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why waiting and be suffering with this HPV virus when there is someone like Chief Dr Lucky that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS C VIRUS,HERPES VIRUS,ALS VIRUS. you can contact his via email: chiefdrlucky@gmail.com Whats App or call +2348132777335 Website : http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/

    ReplyDelete
  17. Real spell caster to bring your ex lover back and save your marriage (Oguguspellcaster@gmail.com /Whatsapp+2348081594908)

    My Name is Jack Robb from USA, I want to say thank you to Dr Ogugu for the good thing he has done for me,Though am not sure if this is the best forum to show my joy and happiness for what he has done for me but i cant hide my happiness and my Joy so i have to share it with people, my marriage got crashed about two years ago and i tried all i could within my power but to no avail. i saw post and testimonial about the good things Dr Ogugu has been doing so i decided to give it a try. though he is always a busy man but when he responded back to my email, he gave me 48hours for my marriage to be restored really just like he said my marriage was restored since then I am happy and i am living happily i am so grateful, Dr.Ogugu you can always email him here: Oguguspellcaster@gmail.com or call his phone/Whatsapp+2348081594908
    You can read more about him on his website and contact him His web page :
    https://oguguspellcaster.wixsite.com/spell

    ReplyDelete
  18. Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
    ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

    https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

    Blog: http://ancientspiritspell.blogspot.com

    Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

    WhatsApp +2347059715465

    ReplyDelete
  19. Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
    ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

    https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

    Blog: http://ancientspiritspell.blogspot.com

    Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

    WhatsApp +2347059715465

    ReplyDelete
  20. I would definitely recommend this cozy place! I had my first acupuncture session ever here and Fred made me feel very relaxed, at home and comfortable. chinese acupuncture

    ReplyDelete
  21. heal from broken heart" Love spell from dr.Unity brought my husband back"contact Unityspelltemple@gmail.com to help you get your Ex lover back urgently after breakup/divorce"
    After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he could come back to me, I was really worried and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a Love spell for me. 11hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity is real spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your ex lover back or save your marriage fast. Do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster Dr.Unity now. Here’s his contact: Call/WhatsApp him: +2348071622464 ,Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com , Website:https://unityspellstemple.blogspot.com ,Your kindness will never be forgotten.

    ReplyDelete
  22. I want to use this opportunity I have to say a big thanks to Dr Great for getting back my ex husband. I'm Linda Gibson from USA, after 7 years of marriage my husband left me for another woman I did whatever I could to get him back but all I did was in vain I was sad, but I didn't lose hope of getting him back because I had faith in God. So I search online on how to get my husband back, and I came across a post of Dr Great of how he helped a lady to get back her ex, I contacted him and told him the pain I was going through, he told me what to do and I did it, then he casted a love spell for me 48 hours later my husband called me and told me he is sorry for what he did and that he misses me very much, later that day he came back home and beg for my forgiveness, since then our love grew stronger. For the marvelous things Dr Great has done for me it would be unfair for me not to let the whole world know that such a powerful spell caster do live. If you want to get back your ex fast email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com or add him up on WhatsApp +2348118829899 Blog: lindagibson90.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  23. I want to use this opportunity I have to say a big thanks to Dr Great for getting back my ex husband. I'm Linda Gibson from USA, after 7 years of marriage my husband left me for another woman I did whatever I could to get him back but all I did was in vain I was sad, but I didn't lose hope of getting him back because I had faith in God. So I search online on how to get my husband back, and I came across a post of Dr Great of how he helped a lady to get back her ex, I contacted him and told him the pain I was going through, he told me what to do and I did it, then he casted a love spell for me 48 hours later my husband called me and told me he is sorry for what he did and that he misses me very much, later that day he came back home and beg for my forgiveness, since then our love grew stronger. For the marvelous things Dr Great has done for me it would be unfair for me not to let the whole world know that such a powerful spell caster do live. If you want to get back your ex fast email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com or add him up on WhatsApp +2348118829899 Blog: lindagibson90.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. Get Your Lover Back Perfect Urgent Love Spell, Am Alexis scorpio from FL Usa All Thanks To Dr happy Who Brought Back The Love Of My Life. my girlfriend cheated on me and asked for a breakup. I don't believe at first i try to get back with her but all she told me was she’s with someone else. that she is no longer interested in marrying me at that point i was heart broken coz i love my girlfriend so much that i could not let go off her all of a sudden she left me, i really love her and never can imagine my life without her. not until i came across a powerful real spell caster Dr happy who promise me 24hours urgent love spell to get back with my girlfriend, good twenty-four {24} hours. hmm-mm, it was a good night time at 11:pm within the days that Dr happy told me that my girlfriend will be back, at first i heard the bell rings getting close to my door i heard someone saying honey!!!, it sound familiar i opened the door and i saw my girlfriend standing and weeping in front of me. i was not surprised because its all i have been praying for her to come back home. Guess what 2 weeks after she noticed her system and her body temperature was changed and i took her to clinic for check up and the doctor told me that there is life in her which means she was pregnant i really wants to use this opportunity to thanks Dr happy so much and the love page that directed me to Dr happy if you have any problem getting your ex back, or predicament that is worse or exactly like this you have been into, contact Dr happy on happylovespell2@gmail.com
    Whatsapp/cal +2348133873774
    visit his website...happylovespell2.webnode.com/
    about his love spell Blogs site.http://happylovespel.blogspot.com.ng/

    ReplyDelete
  25. Grateful to DR UDI for all his help for my life, my partner was having Herpes Simplex Virus, and we were planing on getting married, when we decided to get ourselves tested first and we found out that my Girlfriend was HSV 2 Positive, my Girlfriend was so unhappy, because this was a barrier for us to get married, so i went out to search out a remedy for my partner, and it was so surprising how DR UDI has been a blessing and healing to the masses, after reading about his work on a blog i immediately emailed him: [Drudiherbalhome@gmail .com] and he wrote back to me that my Girlfriend will be OK and that we will get married the same year also, i couldn't believe it, after doing all that is needed to be done, i was surprise that after 2 weeks of using his medicine my Girlfriend went to the doc and was diagnose negative. For more info contact his email (drudiherbalhome@gmail .com) or call or what-app him via +2348051243538 and you will get your illness cure.

    ReplyDelete
  26. How I get back my ex-lover contact Dr. Sam for urgent and fast love spell @ Supremespellcast@gmail.com

    I never believed in spell casting but After 6 years of dating my ex-lover she broke up with me, I still imagine how Dr. Sam brought my ex-lover back to me in just 48 hours. No one could have ever made me believe that there is a real spell caster that really works. Am Cherry by name, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr. Sam, He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my ex-lover who left me, When I contacted Dr. Sam he cast a love spell for me and my ex-lover who said she doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me. She is back now with so much love and caring. today I am glad to let you all know that this spell caster has the powers of bringing lovers back. because I am now happy with my lover, and the most surprising, is that our love is very strong, every day is happiness and joy. and there is nothing like been with the woman you love. I am so happy my love is back to me with the help of Dr. Sam if you have similar problem or you want to fix your broken relationship, stop divorce, get your ex back, get your divorce wife or husband back, I will advise you to contact him ,he is there to help you and put a smile on your face ask he did to me and others. his email: (Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or supremespellcast@yahoo.com)

    his blog> https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com
    WhatsApp/Call him +2347087462033

    ReplyDelete
  27. The Great Dr.OLIHA herbal medicine is a good or perfect cure remedy for HIV Virus, I was diagnose of HIV for almost 5 years, everyday i am always on research looking for a perfect way to get rid of this terrible disease as i always knew that what we need for our health is right here on earth though the scientist say there is know cure for this disease,on my search I saw some different testimony on how Dr. OLIHA has been able to cure HIV with is herbal medicine. I decided to contact this man, I contacted him and he guided me on how to purchase for the medicine. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I’m cured by Dr. OLIHA herbal med icine, I’m very grateful to Dr. OLIHA, reach him now on (oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com ) or you can also call him on +2349038382931.

    Dr. OLIHA Also Cures:
    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES 1/2
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
    5. Hepatitis B
    6. chronic pancreatic
    7. Emphysema
    8. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
    9. Asthma
    10.Acute angle-closure Glaucoma
    11. Diabetes
    12.CHRONIC PANCREATIC
    13.CHLAMYDIA
    14.ZIKA VIRUS

    ReplyDelete
  28. WOW MY HAPPY DAY
    oguduspellcast@gmail.com.or whatsApp number +13168440076


    I am bold enough among many others to state that there is now a potent cure to this sickness but many are unaware of it. I discovered that I was infected with the virus 3 months ago, after a medical check-up. My doctor told me and I was shocked, confused and felt like my world has crumbled. I was dying slowly due to the announcement of my medical practitioner but he assured me that I could leave a normal life if I took my medications (as there was no medically known cure to Herpes). I went from churches to churches but soon found that my case needed urgent attention as I was growing lean due to fear of dying anytime soon. In a bid to look for a lasting solution to my predicament, I sought for solutions from the herbal world. I went online and searched for every powerful trade-medical practitioner that I could severe, cos I heard that the African Herbs had a cure to the Herpes syndrome. It was after a little time searching the web that I came across one Dr Ogudu (A powerful African Herbal Doctor), who offered to help me at a monetary fee. I had to comply as this was my final bus-stop to receiving a perfect healing. My last resolve was to take my life by myself, should this plan fail. At last it worked out well. He gave me some steps to follow and I meticulously carried out all his instructions. Last month, to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that negative,Dr Ogudu Can As Well Cure The Following Decease…Cancer,HIV,Herpes, Hepatitis B,Liver Inflammatory,Diabetes,Fibroid,Get Your Ex Back, You can free yourself of this Herpes virus by consulting this great African Herbal Doctor via this -mail:oguduspellcast@gmail.com.

    ReplyDelete
  29. STRAIGHTFORWARD INVITATION TO THE WORLDLY CONNECTION OF GODS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS FOR THE PROCEDURES OF PERFORMING MAGICAL RITES; I ENSURE YOU OF BEST VOODOO AND LOVE SPELL WHICH EMBODY MAGICAL POWERS CONTACT THE GREAT TEMPLE OF DR OGUDU AND SEE YOUR TEARS NO MORE.Oguduspellcast@gmail.com ]
    whats-app number +13168440076

    “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has begun to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter..I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Ogudu! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished, My ultimate goals in life was to startup a family with a man who permanently wants me always as the only woman in his life, a man that only wants a future with me and his desires to be with and around me to be uncontrollable. A man that will turn a deaf ear to nothing or anyone trying to separate us.I’m so excited sharing my testimony of a real Love spell caster who brought my husband back to me.My husband of 8 yrs left me for a other women and is now living with her. He is starting the paper work to divorce me. I love this man and we have a son together. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the internet one day, I came across a website that suggested Dr.Ogudu can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and told him my problems and he told me what to do and i did it and he did a spell for me. 38 hours later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again. Dr.Ogudu is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine. If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you. Here’s his contact: Oguduspellcast@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  30. STRAIGHTFORWARD INVITATION TO THE WORLDLY CONNECTION OF GODS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS FOR THE PROCEDURES OF PERFORMING MAGICAL RITES; I ENSURE YOU OF BEST VOODOO AND LOVE SPELL WHICH EMBODY MAGICAL POWERS CONTACT THE GREAT TEMPLE OF DR OGUDU AND SEE YOUR TEARS NO MORE.Oguduspellcast@gmail.com ]
    whats-app number +13168440076

    “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has begun to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter..I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Ogudu! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished, My ultimate goals in life was to startup a family with a man who permanently wants me always as the only woman in his life, a man that only wants a future with me and his desires to be with and around me to be uncontrollable. A man that will turn a deaf ear to nothing or anyone trying to separate us.I’m so excited sharing my testimony of a real Love spell caster who brought my husband back to me.My husband of 8 yrs left me for a other women and is now living with her. He is starting the paper work to divorce me. I love this man and we have a son together. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the internet one day, I came across a website that suggested Dr.Ogudu can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and told him my problems and he told me what to do and i did it and he did a spell for me. 38 hours later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again. Dr.Ogudu is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine. If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you. Here’s his contact: Oguduspellcast@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  31. find a real love spell caster? love spell caster who's work has shown results?Call/WhatsApp Dr.Unity +2348055361568.

    heal from broken heart" I'm so excited my husband is back after he left me for another woman"contact Unityspelltemple@gmail.com to help you get your Ex lover back urgently after breakup/divorce" After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he could come back to me, I was really worried and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a Love spell for me. 11hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity is real spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your ex lover back or save your marriage fast. Do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity now. Here’s his contact,Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com or Call/WhatsApp him: +2348055361568 ,website:https://unityspelltemples.blogspot.com ,your kindness will never be forgotten.

    Natasha Wanderly form USA.

    ReplyDelete
  32. POWERFUL SPELL CASTER THAT BROUGHT MY EX HUSBAND BACK INTO MY LIFE AFTER HE LEFT ME EMAIL HIM VIA EMAIL INFINITYLOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM OR INFINITYLOVESPELL@YAHOO.COM ADD HIM ON WHATSAPP +2348118829899

    Hello my fellow friends online I'm Diana Gilbert from USA, I want to use this medium to thank Dr Great because he brought back my Ex husband. my husband left me for his ex girlfriend he had before he married me it's a difficult situation for me I called and beg him to come back he refused he said he don't love me anymore I tried every possible way to get him back all was in vain I told my friend about it and she gave me Dr Great email and I emailed him and told him my problem and he told me what to do and I did it and he cast a love spell which brought back my husband within 24 hours. If you need help in getting back together with your Ex, email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com WhatsApp him+2348118829899 view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me you can also visit my blog http://dianagilbert05.over-blog.com/

    ReplyDelete
  33. POWERFUL SPELL CASTER THAT BROUGHT MY EX HUSBAND BACK INTO MY LIFE AFTER HE LEFT ME EMAIL HIM VIA EMAIL INFINITYLOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM OR INFINITYLOVESPELL@YAHOO.COM ADD HIM ON WHATSAPP +2348118829899

    Hello my fellow friends online I'm Diana Gilbert from USA, I want to use this medium to thank Dr Great because he brought back my Ex husband. my husband left me for his ex girlfriend he had before he married me it's a difficult situation for me I called and beg him to come back he refused he said he don't love me anymore I tried every possible way to get him back all was in vain I told my friend about it and she gave me Dr Great email and I emailed him and told him my problem and he told me what to do and I did it and he cast a love spell which brought back my husband within 24 hours. If you need help in getting back together with your Ex, email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com WhatsApp him+2348118829899 view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me you can also visit my blog http://dianagilbert05.over-blog.com/

    ReplyDelete