Tuesday, 31 March 2015

What's Old Is New Again: Medicine's Blast From the Past



And don't throw the past away/
You might need it some other rainy day.

'Cause everything old is new again.

Or so go the lyrics to Peter Allen’s “Everything Old is New Again.” 

Cow Bile & Onions for the Eye

Recent findings by an interdisciplinary team of scientists and Dr. Christina Lee, a scholar of health in Anglo-Saxon England, suggests that Allen’s lyrics may apply to medicine as well. 

Bald’s Leech-book, aka the British Library’s MS Royal 12 D (see also Harley MS 55, ff 1r-3r), has been a matter of scholarly interest for some time.  Compiled in the mid-10th century, possibly in Winchester, the manuscript contains a variety of medical receipts and a description of how to surgically fix a harelip or cleft lip.[1]
A facsimile of a page from Bald's Leechbook from Oswald Cockayne, Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England  (1865)
 Lee translated an eye-salve receipt which was then recreated and tested by a team of microbiologists.  As several news articles revealed, the simple salve of garlic and leeks/onion, wine, and cow bile proved extraordinarily efficacious against MRSA or methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.

The BBC article on the discovery concluded that “it seems Anglo-Saxon physicians may actually have practised something pretty close to the modern scientific method, with its emphasis on observation and experimentation.”

Those who have read my work, sat in my classrooms, or know me can guess how I reacted to that rather condescending statement.[2] 

Anyway. 

Let’s take a look at some other nonsensical sounding treatments that are still sort of used today, shall we? 

Treating Diarrhea With More Poop

John Hester’s The Pearle of Practise includes a number of very odd and very noisome sounding treatments.  The book sometimes reads like a compendium of horrifying and odd things like treating gout with the wax dripping off a roasted puppy that has been stuffed with black snails and rubbed with saffron.[3]  Or prognosticating whether or not someone would die of the plague by laying a frog on their belly.[4] 

Or the case of an empericke practitioner who cured cancer with “centumpedes” found in English pigs.  These creepy bugs were mashed in ale and consumed causing “a certaine black bugge, or worme to come forth [from the cancerous body] which had many legs, and was quicke and after that the cancker would heale quicklie, with any conuenient medicine.”[5]

Or curing shingles with a plaster of barley, vinegar, and doves dung.[6]  I could probably go on for a while.  Like I said, a veritable compendium of odd things. 

One of the treatments that caught my eye, however, simply stated that in cases of the flux or diarrhea, “diuerse Souldiars in the warres haue beene cured thereof, by setting their fundament in warme Horse dung.”[7]

Yes, diarrhea-ridden soldiers sat in fresh horse poop to cure their diarrhea.

Sounds about as useful as the centumpede cancer remedy, right? 

So have you heard about fecal transplants?

Fecal microbiota transplants or FMT is exactly what it sounds like: the insertion of foreign fecal matter into a patient – through enemas, pills etc. – to treat C. difficile (stomach pains & diarrhea), colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome to name a few.

The donated fecal matter essentially helps to repopulate the patient’s colon with healthy bacteria.

A Hole in the Head

Trepanation inevitably comes up when I’m asked about terrible early modern surgical procedures. It involves drilling a hole into the skull so deeply that the membrane surrounding the brain is exposed. 

We have archeological and textual evidence of prehistoric and premodern trepanned skulls from Asia to the Americas.  Surprisingly, trepanation wasn’t necessarily a death sentence either – many patients survived and their skulls show signs of healing.[8]

But why would anyone need a hole in their head?  Trepanation was sometimes used to treat seizures, skull fractures, migraines, and madness.  The hole was thought to release pressure  

Along with amputation, trepanning was one of the most visibly violent and extreme operations a surgeon could perform. 

Early modern surgical texts mentioned trepanation frequently and even included illustrated how-to sections for more inexperienced surgeons.

The German surgeon, Johannes Scultetus, for example, included a very detailed series of numbered images of a skull being trepanned with additional text.[9]  Both early 18th century writers, Charles Le Clerc and Belloste also included figures with their description of trepanation.  Le Clerc’s image depicts the many layers of bandages he deemed vital to dressing – and thus curing successfully – a trepanned skull.[10]  Belloste also depicted an innovative thin lead plate he used to improve the trepan process by decreased risk of sepsis.[11]

Trepanation underwent something of  a revival in the mid-20th century.  Bizarrely, self-trepanationists such as Bart Hughes advocated the procedure to increase blood flow to the brain and reach a higher state of consciousness.[12]

Today, however, modern surgeons rarely recommend trepanation except in cases of subdural hematoma.  Generally caused by head trauma, blood collects below the dura and increases pressure on the brain – trepanation just releases the pressure, the blood is suctioned out, and the skull piece is (usually) replaced promptly. 

There are a few more: maggots are now used to debride wounds, leeches are used in reconstructive surgery, and the medieval practice of variolation directly led to development of the smallpox vaccine.

Who knows what the past has in store for us?

Let me know what you think here or on Twitter - I'm @medhistorian.


[1]  For more on the manuscript see: M. L. Cameron (1983). Bald's Leechbook: its sources and their use in its compilation. Anglo-Saxon England, 12, pp 153-182.
[2] It wasn’t pretty and involved some ranting with words like epistemology, humility, and incommensurability thrown around.  On a more positive note, however, it did inspire this blog post.
[3] Hester, John.  The pearle of practise, or Practisers pearle, for phisicke and chirurgerie. Found out by I. H. (a spagericke or distiller) amongst the learned obseruations and prooued practises of many expert men in both faculties. Since his death it is garnished and brought into some methode by a welwiller of his.  London: Printed by Richard Field, dwelling in the Black-friers, (1594), 20.
[4] Ibid., 41.
[5] Ibid., 14.
[6] Ibid., 16.
[7] Ibid., 44.
[8] Zanello, Marc et al. “Report of a successful human trepanation from the Dark Ages of neurosurgery in Europe,” Acta Neurochirurgica 157, 2 (Feb 2015), 303-304.
[9] Johannes Scultetus, The Chyrurgeons Store-House, London: printed for John Starker (1674), 111-113.
[10] Charles Le Clerc, The Compleat Surgeon, London: printed for W. Freeman et al (1701), unpaginated image prior to page 1.
[11] Belloste, 78-82.
[12] Please don’t try this.

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    1. Spell for magic
    2. Spell for exam success
    3. Spell for kidney problem
    4.Spell for H.I.V and AIDS
    5.Spell for cancer
    6. Spell to keep your job secure
    7.Spell to get a job
    8.Spell to get a husband
    9.Spell to get your child from your ex
    10.Spell for stroke
    11.Spell for your ex to be submissive to you
    12.Spell for you to get back your ex
    13.Spell to stop your ex from drunkenness
    14.Spell for asthma
    15.Spell for weak ejaculation
    16.Spell for pile
    17.Spell for fibrous

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  38. I’m here to testify about what DR. IYOHA did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 7 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, I was browsing on the internet for solution and i came across a testimony of Sean Anthony on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. IYOHA on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And he also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. IYOHA prepared his powerful medicine which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs medicine, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. IYOHA assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. IYOHA for help via email :driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com or call +1(407) 337-9869, Thanks once again DR. IYOHA for making me a happy man again. my facebook name :powell.gary65

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  39. i am really happy that i have been cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with
    the herbal medicine of Dr Oduwa, i have been suffering from this disease
    for the past 2 years and 7 mouth without solution until i came across the
    email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine,
    i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me
    what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and
    direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he
    ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 4days which i did, to my
    greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that
    there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To
    all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony should stop doubting
    it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not
    actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the
    public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that
    there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their
    family just because of these diseases so you can email him on
    (droduwaspellhome01@gmail.com)
    or you can also whatsapp him on +2348136354191
    he also told me that he has cure all these diseases listed below
    . HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.
    .ALS
    . CANCER
    .HEPATITIS
    .HIV/AIDS
    HSV
    Thank you for your time bye

    ReplyDelete
  40. I am here again to say a big thanks to Dr.chala for making me a compete woman again, i was infected with Hiv/Aids for 4 years i have been seriously praying to God and searching for cure. I came here last month to search for solution to my problem and i saw comment of people talking about different doctors and God directed me to choose dr.chala and i contacted Him, he sent me a medicine and directed me on how i will take the medicine for 14 days, i did so and went for a test and my result came out as Negative. i am so happy, i shared tears of happiness and i have taken it upon my self to always testify about how God used Dr.chala to solve my problem. I am a clean woman now, without any virus, if you are infected with any disease like HIV, AIDS,CANCER, HERPES or any other disease you can also be happy like me by contacting dr.chala through his WhatsApp contact on via +2349057354484 or call him +2348165102815 0r email him on dr.chalaherbalhome@gmail.com

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  41. Am very glad to share this testimony with everyone for the marvelous work Dr Osalu has done for my life, 6 months ago i was diagnosed with herpes virus and ever since then i have been very unhappy, i was so down broken everyday, until one day when i came across a shocking testimony about how Dr Osalu cured someone of his herpes virus, without wasting much time i contacted him immediately on his email address: drosaluherbalhome@gmail.com and after i explain myself to him about how terrible i have been, and he assure me that he will help me to cure my herpes. virus,after he has prepared the herbal medicine he sent it to me and when i have received it and started using it i was totally cure within 2 weeks, i am forever grateful to Dr Osalu for helping me out with his herpes prescription that cured my virus. contact his email address: drosaluherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his Mobile number:+2348078668950.

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